What is Permaculture – Part 2: Principles

permaculture principles

Credits: Maddy Harland (author of article)
Source: Permaculture Magazine
Publication Date: 30 January 2013


The 12 permaculture design principles are thinking tools, that when used together, allow us to creatively re-design our environment and our behaviour in a world of less energy and resources. These principles are seen as universal, although the methods used to express them will vary greatly according to the place and situation. Theycan be applied to our personal, economic, social and political reorganisation and the ethical foundation of permaculture guides the use of these design tools, ensuring that they are used in appropriate ways.

Each principle can be thought of as a door that opens into a whole system of thinking, providing a different perspective that can be understood at varying levels of depth and application. David Holmgren, the co-originator of permaculture, redefined permaculture principles in his seminal book, Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability. When I started giving talks about permaculture to all sorts of different audiences, I decided to write my own explanations and apply the principle not only to designing gardens and farms but to business, society and culture. Every principle comes with David’s ‘proverb’ and is followed by my explanation.

Read the complete article here. 

Read about the Permaculture Principles in Turkish in the article written by Dilek Yürük.


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Makale / Öykü / Şiir, Metin, Sürdürülebilir Yaşam ve Permakültür, Uluslararası Bağlantılar

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